Explained By Your Local Prince Frederick Orthodontist


Dr. Radha Krishnan offers orthodontic treatment ranging from Invisalign, clear ceramic braces, self-ligating braces, traditional braces and more in our comfortable, welcoming office. We have improved the smiles of our loyal patients for more than 20 years. Below is a glossary of terms that will help you understand your orthodontic treatment and the tools used to achieve a perfect smile.


The main wire that fits the bands and brackets. Your braces hold it in place by small elastic or metal ties. Your teeth move along this track.

Band (orthodontic)

Typically a stainless steel thin metal ring, which secures the attachments we make to your teeth. It is made to adapt to the contours of the tooth before being cemented into place.


An attachment that is bonded or banded to the tooth to engage an archwire. These can be metal, ceramic, or plastic.

Ceramic Brackets

More aesthetically-pleasing brackets that are crystalline, alumina, tooth-shade. These are less apparent than metal brackets while offering the same durability and functionality.


When a bottom tooth shifts to the outside of a top tooth. (Upper teeth should fit right on the outside of the lower teeth).


Poor alignment due to a lack of space for the teeth.


The removal orthodontic bands that have been cemented to teeth.

Elastics (rubber bands)

These small colored elastic bands are to move teeth in a particular direction (commonly connected to molar band and upper ball hook).


Also known as gums, gingiva is the tissue surrounding the teeth, consisting of a fibrous muscle tissue that is continuous with the mucoscal covering and periodontal ligament.


Equipment that is attached around the back of the head for tooth movement, anchorage, and growth modification.


When teeth are not able to chew properly. This is when we step in and help correct your smile!


The lower jaw. It can be used in relation to teeth, restorations, appliances, or facial structures.


The upper jaw. It can be used in relation to teeth, restorations, appliances, or facial structures.

Orthognathic Surgery

Surgery to better tooth relationships or relationships between them and the supporting bones. This surgery is usually done with orthodontic therapy


When the upper teeth vertically rest on the outside of the lower teeth, usually measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane.


When the upper teeth overlap over the lower teeth horizontally.


Also called an X-ray, a permanent image, usually taken on film by ionizing radiation.


Removable plastic appliances which are used once your braces are removed. They hold teeth in certain positions to avoid teeth shifting back to their original location.


The period after orthodontic correction, usually when retainers are used.


Tiny elastic rings which create room between teeth to enable a band to be placed around a tooth. The discomfort of feeling as if you have something stuck in your teeth passes as your teeth adjust.

Straight Wire Appliance

A type of edgewise appliance where brackets are angled to limit archwire bends. Brackets and molar tubes have specific orientation in three planes of space.


Colored elastic rings that hold the archwire to the brackets.

Contact Dr. Krishnan Orthodontics

If you believe you have any of the conditions listed above, we encourage you to call (410) 535-2332 or request an appointment online today and come visit us in our office. We serve the Prince Frederick, MD area as well as other Southern Maryland counties, such as Calvert, St. Mary’s, Prince George’s, and Charles. We look forward to helping you be more confident with your smile!